Energy production industry is dominated by four energy groups, all listed on Warsaw Stock Exchange and with significant share owned by the Ministry of Treasury: PGE, Tauron Polska Energia, Enea and Energa. In total, they all produce 61.5% of electricity in Poland.
PGE (Polska Grupa Energetyczna) is by far the largest group, producing annually more than 60 TWh. 70% of this production comes from brown coal-fired power plants located in Turów and Bełchatów, while power plants Opole and Dolna Odra and power&heat plants located all over Poland are powered by steam coal. Tauron PE, the second largest energy producer, has eight power plants located in southern Poland, with the largest: Łagisza, Jaworzno and Łaziska. Also, Tauron PE subsidiary Tauron Ciepło is operating three heat&power plants in Tychy, Katowice and Dąbrowa Górnicza. Enea, headquartered in Poznań, is an owner of Kozienice power plant. Also, recently Enea bought heat&power plant in Białystok. The last group – Energa – is an operator of Ostrołęka power plant and heat&power plants in Elbląg and Kalisz. Basically, the whole Poland is divided between the four energy groups (taking into consideration areas of operation of distribution systems operators): PGE is taking east and central Poland, Tauron – south and southwest, Enea – west and part of northwest, and Energa – north and part of central Poland.
Other important electricity producers are three private owned companies. PAK S.A. with its three power plants in Pątnów, Adamów and Konin is producing nearly as much energy as Enea, although all these power plants are powered by brown coal mined in opencast facilities in Konin and Adamów. EDF, controlled by the French government, is operating large power plant in Rybnik and also few major heat&power plants (Kraków, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Toruń, Zielona Góra) trough its subsidiary EDF Polska. Another French company – GDF SUEZ – is an owner of power plant in Połaniec of a similar size as the one in Rybnik. There are several others energy producers operating on Polish power and heat production industry. All of them with their share in electricity production are listed bellow (2013).
Steam coal (although volume of its use dropped in the last decade by around 5 million tonnes) is still the crucial fuel for Polish energy production and will be for some time. Power plants operators are planning important investments in their facilities. Opole power plant is building two new energy blocks, one block will be build also in Kozienice. Tauron (Jaworzno) and Energa (Ostrołęka) are also making serious preparations for building energy blocks. EDF was also considering building a new block in Rybnik, but due to the law changes company decided to amend the four existing blocks instead.
Large energy producers buy coal directly from the coal producers on the basis of bilateral, long-term contracts, in large quantities (millions of tonnes). Prices in contracts are usually set for the whole delivery period, with possibility to renegotiate them in case of large market changes. Some companies are following the strategy of increasing self-sufficiency and invest in own mining companies. Tauron Wydobycie, subsidiary of Tauron PE supplies company’s power and heating plants with 40% of their coal demand (target is to reach 70-90% of whole demand).